Midlothian

Astronomers

Anderson, Thomas David (1853-1932), born in Edinburgh February 6 1853, educated at Edinburgh University, where he graduated M.A. and later D. Sc. He qualified for the ministry of the Congregational Church, but never held a charge and devoted his life to astronomy. With slender optical means he discovered over 50 variable stars and also the famous temporary stars Nova Aurigae (1892) and Nova Persei ( 1901). Resident in Edinburgh until 1904, he later moved to East Lothian and died at Edrom, Berwickshire, March 31, 1932.

Baikie, James, Rev., DD, FRAS (1866-1931), born in Lasswade, lectured in astronomy to troops on the Western Front, Wrote several books incl. Through the Telescope 1906 and Peeps at the Heavens 1911

Blair, Robert (1748–1828), born Garwald, East Lothian, trained as a naval surgeon.  Through his study of navigation instrument he was appointed to the new chair of practical astronomy at Edinburgh University where he worked on optical aberration of lenses (see Wikipedia & ODNB).

Brück, Mary T., Dr. [nee Conway] (1925-2008), born in Ballivor, Co. Meath, Ireland, carried out solar work at Dunsink, later moving to Scotland as  senior lecturer in Astronomy at Edinburgh University. She was married to Prof. Hermann A Bruck who was Director of Dunsink observatory (see obituary in SHA Bulletin issue 18 June 2009).

Copeland, Ralph (1837-1905), born at Moorside Farm, Wood Plumpton, astronomer and third Astronomer Royal for Scotland. He worked at theDun Echt Observatory owned by the 26th Earl of Crawford and undertook worldwide expeditions, observing the 1874 and 1882 transits of Venus from Mauritius andJamaica. (See ODNBWikipedia; Lancashire)

Douglas, James, fourteenth earl of Morton (1702–1768), was a Scottish astronomer and representative peer who was President of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh from its foundation in 1737 until his death. He also became President of the Royal Society (24 March 1764), and was a distinguished patron of science, and particularly of astronomy (see ODNB).

Henderson, Thomas (1798-1844), born in Dundee, worked at Carlton Hill Observatory and then the Cape Observatory – see below (ODNB).

IInnes, Robert Thorburn Ayton (1861-1933), born Edinburgh. Self-educated, he built a successful wine business in Australia, and in 1894 borrowed a 6¼-inch refractor and swiftly discovered new double stars. David Gill recruited him to the Cape, where he became the leading South African astronomer of his time. Double stars remained his primary interest, and he discovered 1,628 of them (see ODNB).

Nasmyth, James (1808-1890), was born at 47 York Place, Edinburgh. Largely self-educated. At Eccles in Lancashire, he started his own business making machine tools, and made a fortune. His most famous of several inventions was the steam hammer. He was interested in astronomy before 1827, in which year he constructed a very effective reflecting telescope of 6″ aperture. In 1840 he was experimenting with different proportions for speculum mirrors, and completed a 10″ that was greatly admired by his new friend William Lassell, a friendship and cooperation that lasted 40 years. In 1843 he reported observations of a comet. By about 1845 he had completed his new 20″ reflector, and began many years of lunar observations. In 1856 he retired to Penshurst, Kent. See Kent, Nasmyth’s Observatory, Penshurst (see ODNB).

Sandeman, Patrick (1822-fl.1861), born Leith, Midlothian, Scotland, listed as astronomer (see 1861 Census for Scotland).

Scott, James Lidderdale,  FRAS (1848-1908), merchant, born Edinburgh, took up astronomy aged 40. owned 127mm Cooke-Casella refractor.

Short, James (1710-1768), born in Edinburgh and educated there. His skill as a telescope maker gained him election to the Royal Society of London in 1737. He obtained patronage, participated in observations, and produced about 180 telescopes before moving to London in 1738. At his workshop in the Strand he made about 1,200 telescopes (see: ODNB).

Smith, Charles O. (? -d.1949), of Edinburgh, had a 16cm Newtonian reflector, but later obtained a  15cm Wray refractor housed in a run-off shed. After 1946 he published excellent papers on Jupiter. A member of “Mr Barker’s Circle”, an observing group of eight men active from April 1934 to December 1938 and May 1946 to May 1948 (See McKim 2013).

Smyth, Charles Piazzi (1819-1900) – see Calton Hill Observatory below

Wallace, Alexander (1834-80) – see Calton Hill Observatory below

Williamson, Peter (1827-fl.1860s) – see Calton Hill Observatory below

Observatories

Calton Hill Observatory (1818- ) Observatory House in 1776 was the first observatory to be built on this volcanic hill in the centre of the city, by Thomas Short – a Gothic round tower with short wing. This was followed in 1818 by the City Observatory built in Greek temple style, by public subscription for the new Astronomical Society of Edinburgh. In 1822 was granted the title of Royal Observatory, but no money. In 1846 the government had to take it over, but a long period of under-funding ensued. By 1888 it was run down and threatened with closure. Government funded astronomy in Edinburgh was saved by Lord Lindsay offering the equipment of his Dun Echt Observatory, and the new Royal Observatory was built upon Blackford Hill south of Edinburgh. The Calton Hill Observatory gained a large new City Dome in 1895 (but to house the 22″ With refractor of 1862 purchased for £700 in 1889 from Buckingham’s Wandsworth Observatory), and reverted to municipal status.
Although listed, the buildings have lacked sufficient security and maintenance, vandals have done considerable damage, and although some of the original instruments are in situ, the Edinburgh A.S. has been obliged to withdraw while the Council considers complex restoration plans from many interested parties (February, 2012). See the Astronomical Society of Edinburgh’s site http://www.astronomyedinburgh.org/ for a detailed history (see Howse 1986).

Directors

Henderson, Thomas (1798-1844), born in Dundee) in 1834 was appointed first Astronomer Royal for Scotland. A first-rate mathematician, but with poor eyesight and a weak heart, he and his assistant Alexander Wallace made 60,000 observations, but later the it was found that the pillar mounting of the Fraunhofer transit instrument were defective.

Smyth, Charles Piazzi (1819-1900), was born in Naples, the son of Captain William Henry Smyth who settled in Bedford and established a private observatory there with a powerful refractor. There he received his first lessons in astronomy. At the age of sixteen he became an assistant to Sir Thomas Maclear at the Cape of Good Hope. In 1846 he was appointed Astronomer Royal for Scotland, based at the Calton Hill Observatory in Edinburgh, and professor of astronomy in the University of Edinburgh. Dr John Lee of Hartwell in 1851 loaned him “a large quantity of instruments and apparatus” to enable him to test the teaching of practical astronomy, neglected by his predecessors, but he had difficulty attracting a class (Memoirs RAS, 20, 1851, 213-4).
Shortly after his appointment, the observatory was placed under the control of Her Majesty’s Treasury and suffered from a long series of under-funding. He was also appalled by the climate there. Because of this, most of his notable work in astronomy was done elsewhere. Here he completed the reduction, and continued the series, of the observations made by his predecessor, Thomas James Henderson. In 1853, Smyth was responsible for installing the time ball on top of Nelson’s Monument in Edinburgh to give a time signal to the ships at Edinburgh’s port of Leith.
In 1865 he took a 7″ refractor on an expedition to Teneriffe to test the effects of height and refraction. Successfully and skillfully pursued, his consequent report made Piazzi Smyth the pioneer of the modern practice of placing telescopes at high altitudes to secure the best observing conditions.
Smyth also achieved good science in spectroscopy and meteorology. But after initial enthusiasm he failed to pursue his teaching duties at the University, and fell foul of colleagues there. Airy made a withering criticism of the Calton Hill Observatory, and in 1888 Smyth responded by resigning in protest at gross under funding. This brought matters to a head, and when the Westminster government announced its intention to close the Observatory, Lord Lindsay stepped in and offered the contents of his modern observatory if the government built a new observatory. The Royal Observatory on Blackwood Hill duly opened in 1896.

Wallace, Alexander (1834-80), assistant astronomer who worked at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (see website and 1881 census for Scotland ).

Williamson, Peter (1827-fl.1860s), assistant astronomer who worked at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (see website and 1861 census for Scotland).

The Royal Observatory, Blackwood Hill, Edinburgh – ROE (1896- ), completed in 1896 on the southern outskirts of Edinburgh at a cost of £34,000, to house the instruments from Lord Lindsay’s Dun Echt Observatory, and his large and valuable library. He also contributed to the construction of the Observatory.
Its equipment was the 15″ Dun Echt refractor with a superb micrometer, and a very powerful Zöllner astro-photometer with which Copeland detected helium in the M42 nebula, and the 8.6″ transit circle, as large as any in the world. There were laboratories for astrophysical work. Altogether in 1898 the ROE was a first-class astrophysical facility by the standards of the day.
In 1932 a 90cm reflector was installed as the new principal instrument, to determine the energy distribution in stellar spectra by photo-spectroscopy. This marked the Observatory’s shift to modern astrophysics.
In modern times the Observatory was allocated control of and challenged to measure and evaluate the very high quality photographic plates generated by the 1.2 metre Schmidt camera at the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The ROE team collaborated with industry and developed two types of fully automatic plate measuring and analysing machines – GALAXY and COSMOS (coordinates, size, magnitude, orientation, shape). The Observatory was responsible for the design, construction and from completion in 1978 the working of the 3.8 metre UK Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) on Mauna Kea. After the closure of the ROG at Herstmonceux, the ROE benefited by becoming the home of the UK’s residual capability for telescope design and operation.

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